ಗುರುಭಾವಂ ವ್ಯಂಜಯಂತೀ ಭಾತಿ ಶ್ರೀಜಯತೀರ್ಥವಾಕ್ || Sri Vyasarajaru in Nyayamruta
- Adyantha Shlokas of Sri Jayatirtharu – Sanskrit lipi – Click
- Adyanta Shlokas of Sri Jayatirtharu – Kannada lipi – Click
- Grantha Varnana Stotra – Click
- Grantha Varnana Devaranama – Click
In Ruk Prasthaana – Rugbhaashya Teeka
In Swatantra Granthaas – i) VaadaavaLi ii) PramaNa paddati iii) Padyamaala(Total Grantha sanKye – 55000. Note : for every 32 aksharaas one grantha)
He has written 21 granthas. He has written commentary on majority of Sarvamoola Granthaas.
- Tathvaprakashika – brahmasootra bhashya Teeka – Before Srimadacharya, there were 21 Kubhaashyaas on Brahmasutra. As such, Vedavyasaru insisted Srimadacharyaru to write Bhashya for Brahmasootra which is in line with Vedavyasaru. So Acharyaru wrote Brahmasutra Bhashya wherein he has said there are 564 sootraas, which contained 4 adhyaayaas, 16 paadaas, and 223 adhikaranaas.
Tattva Prakashika contains : –
Prathama adhyaaya (samanyadhyaaya) – Sri Maha Vishnu is the only Parabrahma. He is anantha Kalyana GuNa paripoorna and has atha kartrutva shakthi viz., a) Srusti, b) sthithi, c) laya, d) jnaana, e) ajnaana, f) niyamana, g) bandha, h) moksha. Srihari is sarva shabda vandya as said in anantha vedaas.
Dviteeya adhyaaya (avirOdhaadhyaaya) – It is said that Srihari is Sarva doosha doora. It gives evidence to prove that Saankya, vaishEshika, bouddha, jaina, shakthi, chaarvaka and Paashupata matha are apraamaana and are not reliable. It says Jeeva – Parabrahma relation (sambhandha) is that of servant and King relation.
Triteeya adhyaaya (saadhanaadhyaaya) says – Those adhikaaree jeevaas must have Virakthi, bhakthi, jnaana and do upaasaana in order to get Moksha.
Fourth Adhyaaya (Phaalaadhyaaya) – Here it is mentioned about karma kshaya, utkraanthi, route and phala. “Brahma” shabdha means mukyataha “Vishnu” only. He is ananta kalyaana guna paripoorna, sarvadosha varjita, svagatabedha rahita, jagajjanmaadi kartaa, he is bhinna from nityamukta jeeva, he is karmaphala dhaatru, sarvachestaprada, muktagamya. This has so many Teekaas and TippaNees – viz., Sri Vyaasarajaru’s Tatparya Chandrika, Sri Raghunatha Tirtha’s Shesha Tatparya Chandrike, Rayara Bhaavadeepa, Kundalagiri Acharya’s Rasakoolankasha, Pandurangi Keshavaachaarya’s gururaajeeya, Vyaasa Tatvajna Tirtha’s Tippani, Raghottama Tirthara Bhaavabhoda, Tippani by Ratna garbha Odeyar, Vaadiraja’s Gurvartha Deepika, Vishnu Tirtha’s Rasaranjini, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtha’s vyaakyaana, Vijayeendraru, Sumateendraru, Chalari Sankarshanacharyaru, Srimushnam Ananthabhattaru, etc2. Srimannyaaya sudha – (Anuvyaakhyaana Teeka – Sudha – Vishamapada vaakyaartha vivrutti ) – सुधा वा पठनीय वसुधाव पालनीय – Sudhaa vaa paThanIyaa vasudhaava paalanIya
– This is the honourable word given to this great grantha. In this grantha Teekarayaru has analysed and condemned many kubhaashyaas, Some of the granthaas analysed and condemned by Teekarayaru are “Padmapaada”, “Prakaashaatman”, “saanKyatattva kaumudee”, “Chitsukhee”, “Nyaayaleelaavathi”, “Nyaaya Kandali”, “Nyaayavaarthika taatparya “
This has Omkaara artha vichaara, jeeva kartrutva vichaara, “ithi” shabdaartha, “iva” shabdaartha, karma kartrutva vichaara, pada shakthi vichaara, laya vichaara, bedha vichaara, saakshi vichaara, srushTi Vichaara, jnaana taaratamya vichaara, avayava vichaara, asiddhi vichaara, apraamaaNya paratatva vichaara, veda pramaana vichaara, etc.
This has reference for many nyaayaas viz., “AjaakRupaaNi nyaaya, kaakShinyaaya, kaphONiguDhanyaaya, kUrmarOma nyaaya, gObalIvardaanyaaya, parisaMkyaanyaaya, pUtikuShmaaNDa nyaaya, bhikShupaada prasaraNa nyaaya, mahaa mallEsha bhaNganyaaya, vIchI taranganyaaya, suptaprabuddhan nyaaya, etc.
There are many Tippanees – viz., Vyasatattvajnaru, Kundalagiri Acharyaru, Vidyaadeesharu, PandurangI Keshavacharyaru, Kashi TimmaaNNaachaaryaru, Yadupatyaachaaryaru, Ratnagarbha Odeyaru, Rayaru (Parimala), vaadiraajaru, KambaalUru Raamachandra Tirtharu, Tamraparni Anandatirthacharyaru, Madanooru Vishnu Tirtharu, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtharu, Ayi Satyanaathachaaryaru, Satyanatharu, Satyaprajnaru, Satyavrataru, etc.
3. Nyaaya vivarana Teeka – This is an uncompleted Teeka. Here Jayateertharu has done Teeka for the first Adhyaya and first two paadaas of second adhyaaya, and for the rest Sri Raghottama Tirtharu has done the Teeka.
4. Prameya Deepika – Geetabhashya Teeka – Without this grantha, it is very difficult for us to understand the Geetha Bhashya of Srimadacharya. Here while writing Teeka on Srimadacharya’s vaakya, Teekarayaru has narrated the meanings given by Shankaracharya and Bhaskara and condemned them. Here he has given the reference of Narahari Tirtha’s Vyaakyaana. In some of the cases wherein some Advaitees have tried to find fault with the Grammer of Srimadacharya, Teekarayaru has established that the Grammer used by Acharya is accurate and appropriate.Here he says : ನನು ವೇದಾಂತೈ: ಈಶ್ವರನಿತ್ಯತ್ವಂ ಜಾನಂತ: ತತ್ರೈವೋಕ್ತಂ ಜೀವನಿತ್ಯತ್ವಂ ಕಥಂ ನ ಜಾನಾತಿ |
ननु वेदांतै: ईश्वरनित्यत्वं जानंत: तत्रैवोक्तं जीवनित्यत्वं कथं न जानाति ।
nanu vEdaaMtai: IshvaranityatvaM jaanaMta: tatraivOktaM jIvanityatvaM kathaM na jaanaati | न च अभाव: तारतम्यवान् | ನ ಚ ಅಭಾವ: ತಾರತಮ್ಯವಾನ್ | na cha abhaava: taaratamyavaan |
– There can’t be gradation in the case of non existing objects.
Persons who know Vedanta, when they understand Nityatva of Eshwara from Vedas, they will also understand that Jeevaas are also Nitya. He says that Jeeva is Nitya and Eshwara is parama nithya.
5. Nyaya Deepika – Geetha Tatparya Teeka – This is the Vyaakyaana for Srimadacharya’s Geetha Tatparya NirNaya. This has Tippani in the name of “Kiranaavali”. Whatever was not clear in Geetaa Bhashya was clear in Geetaa Tatparya. There are many pramEyaas which are untold in Geeta Tatparya.
Bhagavad Geetha can be summarized as : Jeeva Isha Aikya, Jaganmityaatva, all are apraamanika. Vishnu is Sarvottama, there is pancha beda, taaratamya, jagat satyatva, etc. Paramathma is Anantha Kalyana Guna in all his roopaas, avataaraas, he is sarva dosha vivarjita, sarvottama, he is bhinna from all, all are under him only. He is swatantra. All Shastraas tell him only.
Jeeva is nitya. Jeeva is bhinna from Eshwara. Bhinna individually, there is taaratamya. Jeeva is alpa shakta, paratantra, apoorna. Jeevaas are of three types – Uttama, Madhyama and adhama. Uttama is mukti yogya, madhyama is samsaarayogya, and adhama is tamoyogya. Vishnu Bhakthi is the superior sadhaane. Vishnu Sarvottamatva Jnaana is the best jnaana. There is no one which is superior to Moksha. Mukthaas will not have prakruta deha. Even mukthaas do not have JeevEsha Aikya.
This has following Teekaa and tippanees – Rayara Bhaavadeepa, Tamraparni Srinivaasaachaarya’s Kiranaavali, satyaprajna Tirtha’s bhaavaprakaasha, and Satyanaatha Tirtha’s Tippani.
6. Ishavaasya upanishadbhashya Teeka – This is the Teeka for Srimadacharya’s IshavasyOpanishad, (Ishavasa Upanishad has twenty shlokaas). Swaayambu Manu prayed Yajna naamaka Vishnu through Ishavaasya Mantra as per Brahmaanda Puraana. This Grantha quotes Jagat swaroopa, Isha swaroopa, Phala for Brahma Jnaani, Phala for AnyatOpaasaka, Here Sri Jayateertharu has condemned the bhashya of Advaita and Vishistadvaita from the first shloka itself and done the pratipadane of Bhagavantha’s sarva vyaptatva & on all.
7. Shat Prashnopanishad Bhashya Teeka – This is the Teeka for Acharya Madhwas’s “Shat Prashnopanishad Bhashya”. Here six sages (Rushees) will ask questions. The six sages are Kabandee kaatyaayana, VaidarbhI bhargava, Kausalya Ashwalaayana, SouryOmaNi gaargya, Shaibyascha Satyakaama and SukEshacha Bhaaradhwaaja. For these six Rushee’s questions answers were given by another sage Pippalaada. This has Tippanees of Vadiraajaru, Chalari Narasimhacharyaru, Chalaari ShEshaachaaryaru, LingEri Vyaasacharyaru, Taamraparni Srinivaasachaaryaru and Rayaru.
8. Tathvasankhyaana Teeka – This is the Vyaakyaana for Tattva sankyaana of Srimadacharya. This has Madhwa matha prameyaas. This grantha tells – Tattva Swaroopa, anaarOpitattvam, tattva saamaanya lakshaNam, vEdapraamaaNya. This explains parabrahma tattva, lakshmi tattva, jeeva swaroopa, and proves that Sri Vishnu is only swatantra and all others are under him only.
Acharya Madhwa says in the beginning itself – svataMtraM asvataMtraM cha dvividhaM tattvamiShyatE| ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂ ಅಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂ ಚ ದ್ವಿವಿಧಂ ತತ್ತ್ವಮಿಷ್ಯತೇ| | स्वतंत्रं अस्वतंत्रं च द्विविधं तत्त्वमिष्यते।. For this there is a comment that Acharya Madhwa has not done the Mangalacharana itself while starting the grantha. For this Sri Jayatirtha has replied that Acharya Madhwa must done the Mangalacharana in mind itself. Acharya Madhwa being the greatest “aastika”, this can be inferred easily. There need not be a suspicion about this. Jayatirtha further states that the word “svatantra” itself is Mangalacharana. The best way of calling Vishnu is “svatantra” स्वतंत्रं – i.e., independent. This quality rests only in Maha Vishnu and not in anyone else. All are dependent on HIM. As such, “svatantra” itself is Mangalacharana for this grantha.
There are many Tippanees viz., Srimushnam anantabhattaru, Pandurangi Keshavacharyaru, Kaashi Timmannaacharyaru, AyI narasimhaacharyaru, VaNIvaalI Narasimhaacharyaru, Chalaari Narasimhacharyaru, Nrusimha Bhikshu, Bhagavanta raayaru, Yaadavaachaaryaru, Raayaru, Varada Tirtharu, Kumbhaari Vaasudevaacharyaru, Vijayeendraru, Tamraparni Ananda Tirthacharyaru, Vittalacharyaru, Lingeri Vyaasaacharyaru, Chalari SheShaachaaryaru, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtharu, Lingeri Srinivasacharyaru, Tamraparni Srinivasacharyaru, Satyadharmaru, Satyaprajnaru
9. Tattvaviveka Teeka – This is the vyaakyaana for TattvavivEka of Srimadacharya. This explains chEtanassatva, swatantratva, svabhaavatva, chEtanatva, nitya muktatva, nityatva. This has many Tippanees – viz., Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Kambalooru Ramachandra Tirtharu, Varada Tirtharu, Vyaasarajau (Mandaara Manjari), Bidarahalli Srinivasa tirtharu, Taamraparni Srinivaasacharya.
10. Maayaavada Khandana Teeka – This is a small grantha. This is a Teeka for Srimadacharya’s Mayavaada Khandana Grantha. Maayaavada Matha says – Jeeva himself is Brahma, Brahma – आत्म ऐक्य (ब्रह्म – आत्म ऐक्य) is the Main Meaning for Veda. Srimadacharya has condemned these in his Mayavada Khandana Grantha and proved that Srihari is Sarvottama, sakala Guna paripoorna. This has Teeka from Vyasarajaru (Mandaara Manjari), Satyanatharu (Parashu), Rayaru, Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Vadirajaru, and Anantha Bhattaru.
11. Tattvodyota Teeka – This is the Teeka for TattvOdyota Of Srimadacharya.
This grantha is mukya saadhana for Advaita matha Khandana and dwaita matha sthaapana. Topics discussed here are :
- Jeevesha Bedha Samarthane,
- Shoonya vaadi – Maayaavadi saamya samarthane
- Sakala Guna paripoornatva saadhane
- Jagat satyatva samarthane
- Vishnu Sarvottamatva samarthane
12. Upadhi Khandana Teeka – Prapancha mithyaatvaanumana Khandana Teeka – Advaita says that Jagat mithya through the vaakya “विश्वं मिथ्या दृश्यत्वात्”. There are doshaas in Advaita vaakya. They are : आश्रयासिद्ध पक्ष:, अप्रसिद्धविशेषण पक्ष:, सिद्धसाधनता, असिद्धहेतु:, विरुद्धहेतु:, अनेकांतिक दोष:, कालात्ययापदिष्ट:, साध्यविकल: सिद्धांत:, . There are many Teekaas for this Grantha – They are Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Rayaru, Vyasarajaru, Adya SheShaadaasaacvhaaryaru, Bidarahalli Srinivasa tirtharu, Lingeri Srinivaasaachaaryaru, Satyanatharu and Vadirajaru.
13. Karma nirnaya Teeka – This is the Teeka for Srimadacharya’s Karma Nirnaya. The PramEyaas available in this Grantha are meaning for Mahaanaami Ruk, NiroopaNa of Indraadi sarva naama in Parama mukhyataya Parabrahma.
14. Katha Lakshana Teeka – This is a Teeka on Srimadacharya’s Katha lakshana. This contains the rules to be followed during “Vaada” or “Vaakyaartha”. This has kathaprabhedhaas, vaada jalpavitanda, vaada kathaalakshana, praashnika lakShaNa (method of Questioning), nirNaya karma (Decision method), jayaapajaya reasons ( reasoning of Win-Loose). This has several Tippanees viz., Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Rayaru, Vijayeendraru, Vedesha Tirtharu, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtharu.
15. Pramana Lakshana Teeka – This is also called as “Nyayakalpalatha”. This contains Different Pramaanaas, their sub-divisions, and their lakshanaas, linga vishesha, upapatti doshaas, nigraha sthaanaas, parOkSha pramaana niraakaraNe. This Grantha has Tippani by Vijayeendraru, Rayaru, Vidyaadeesharu, Vedesha Tirtharu, Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtharu, Anantha Bhattaru, Chennakeshavacharyaru, etc..
16. Vishnutathva Nirnaya Teeka – This is one of the Prakarana Granthaas. It has reference of Sri Padmanabhatirtha and Sri Narahari Tirtha’s vyakyana. Here he has condemned all the comments by Advaitees on the “Bedha Chintane” of Sri Madhwacharya. Here Srihari has been proved as Doshadoora, sakala kalyaana GuNa paripoorna, he is supreme among kSharaksharaas, Veda pourushatva, veda nityatva, jeeveshwara bedha, Vishnu sarvottamatva, bedha swaroopa, meaning of mitya, bedha satyatva, jagatsatyatva, jaganmithyaapoorvaka jagatsatyatva. This grantha has 3 divisions – first proves Vishnu is atyantha bhinna from Sarva jagat and he is sarvottama. Second says Vishnu is supreme than ksharaas brahmaadi and aksharaa Mahalakshmi. Third says Vishnu is dosha rahita and guNa paripoorna.
This has many tippanees viz., Pandurangi Keshavacharya, Raghoottamaru, Rayaru, Aiji Acharyaru, Vijayeendraru, Vedesha Tirtharu, Rayachur Acharyaru, Bidarahalli Srinivasacharyaru and Anantha Bhattaru.
17. PramaNa paddati – This is one of the svatantra or independent grantha of Sri Jayatheertha.
प्रणम्य चरणांभोज युगलं कमलापते: ।
प्रमाणपद्धतिं कुर्मो बालानां बोधसिद्धये ।
This has three divisions – first is Pratyaksha parichcheda, second anumaana parichEda, and the third Agama parichcheda. Srimadachaaryaru in his Pramana Lakshana Grantha has explained the “Pramana Lakshana”, but it is not easily understandable for alpa jnaanees and many of the vaakyaas are very difficult to understand. That is why Jayatirtharu has written this Grantha
Here he has given the swaroopa lakshana, and its division, and their jnaana sadhanatva, pramana swatatsva, apraamanya paratastva
18. Rugbhaashya Teeka – Srimadacharya has written Rugbhashya. Vedaas
can be divided into two. They are :
- Astaka, Adhyaya, Varga, Ruk
- Mandala, Anuvaak, Sooktha, Ruk.
Rugveda has 8 Astakaas and 8 mandalaas. Srimadacharyaru has written Bhashya for the first three adhyaaya of prathama astaka. These three adhyaya has 96 vargaas and 489 Ruk. Veda has three meanings –
They are – :-
- agnyaadi dEvataapara artha
- tadantaryaami paratva
- Adhyaatma paratva
This has several Tippanees – viz., Arogyahari, Keshavacharya Pandurangi, Chalaari Narasimhachaarya, Kambaalooru Ramachandra Tirtharu, Bidarahalli Srinivasa Tirtharu, Lakshmi Narayanacvharyaru, Varahaacharyaru, Rayaru, Satyanatharu, Sumateendraru.
19. Vaadaavali – This is an independent Grantha by Jayatirtharu. The main aim of this grantha is condemning the Jagan mityaatva vaada. विमतं मिथ्या दृश्यत्वात्, जडत्वात् परिच्चिन्नत्वात् – Sri Jayatirtharu has given the remedy for all these anumaanaas. Some of the topics covered in this book are –
- Avidya Lakshana & its Khandana
- “Mithyaatva” lakshana and its khandana
- Drushyatva, Jadatva, Parichinnatva – Reason and its khandana
- Yathaartya of svapna Jnaana
- “Jagat Satyatva” and its reasoning – He has condemned all the khandana on Jagat satyatva.
- नेहनानास्ति, एकमेवाद्वितीयं – Nirupana of these Shrutees based on Madhwa Siddaantha
- “भेद: धर्मस्वरूपमेव” – Samarthana of Bedha Swaroopa
20. Padyamaala – Here Jayateertharu has briefed about the Bhagavat pooja paddati based on “Tantrasaara sangraha” of Srimadacharya. This Grantha has Devata gruha pravesha, keeping 5 or 7 kalashaas.
Bringing Tulasi and flowers – Flowers must not have been bought or stolen or must not have been brought from abraahmanaas, it must not have fallen on the floor, the flowers must not have been packed in a cloth.
Other formalities in Devata Gruha – Dikpaalaka namaskara, open the devata gruha with vaayu mantra, deepam prajvaalya, bhootochaatane, brahmapaara stotra pathana, Gantaanadaana, Peeta Pooja, AavaraNa pooja, Desha Kaalaadi Sankalpa, praanaayaama, Uchaarane of Beeja mantra, prarthane of Bhagavantha, kalasha pooja, sthapane of kalasha traya, pongee phala samarpana, taamboola, dhoopa, neeraajana, pushpaanjali, mantrapushpa, chaamara, vyajana, darpana, chatra, vaahanaadi, geeta, nrutya, raajopachaara samarpane, dhenu mudraadi pradarshana, shanka pooja, shankaadi mudra pradarshana, paatra saadhana. Tulasi samarpane, shankodakena pooja dravya prokshane, inviting Srihari, peeta avaahana, panchamruta abhisheka, purusha sookta, manyusookta, jitante stotra pathana, vastra samarpana, sarvaabharana alankara, yajnopaveeta samarpana, tattvan yaasa, maatrukaanyaasa, lakshmee pooje, dhaaraa pooja, kRudholka, vIrolka, dyulka, sahasrOlka namana, keshavaadi chaturvimshati naamena pooja, garuda pooja, sauparni pooja. Doopa, deepa, mangalaarathi, naivedya samarpana, dhenu mudra pradarshana, aposhana, bhojana, paaneeya, uttaraaposhana, taamboola samarpana, dakshina samarpana, punardhoopa samarpana, neerajana, pushpa samarpana, kusumaanjali samarpana, vedamantra pathana, chaamara seve. Theertha for Ramaa brahmaadees, hasta prakshalana, sarva samarpana with Vishnu and end the pooja with yasyasmrutyaacha mantra.
21. Adhyatma Tarangini – This is written by Sri Jayatirtharu as per “Satkatha” “सत्कथा” – but unavailable.
His ankita – “raama vittala”. It was for the first time that “vittala” ankita was introduced in Haridasasahitya, that too by Sri Jayatirtharu. This means that Sri Jayatirtharu is the next to Sri Narahari Tirtharu for contribution to Kannada Haridasa sahitya.
Jayatirtharu and Haridasa Sahitya –
Apart from so many Sanskrit Granthaas, he has written some devaranamagalu in Kannada. One of them : –
ನೀಲ ಮೇಘ ಶ್ಯಾಮನ ಕೋಮಲಾಂಗನ ಕಂಡೆ ನಾ | ಪ |
ತರುಣತರುಣಿಯ ತೇಜವ ಪೋಲುವ ಸಿರಿ ಮುಕುಟದ
ಫಾಲದಿಂ ಮೃಗನಾಭಿತಿಲಕವು ಶೋಭಿಪ ಕೊರಳಾಲಿಯ | ಅ.ಪ |
ಭ್ರೂಯುಗಳ ಕಂಗಳು ಸುನಾಸಿಕ ಮಕರಕುಂಡಲಕರ್ಣದ
ಫಾಲದಿಂ ಥಳಥಳಿಪ ಕಪೋಲದ ಕಾಂತಿಯನು ಕಡುರಂಜಿಸುವ
ಬಿಂಬಾಧರೋಷ್ಠದ ಮಂದಹಾಸದ ಚಂದ್ರಕಿರಣಗಳ
ಸೋಲಿಸುವ ಸುಲಿಪಲ್ಲ ಕಂಧರಮಾಲಿಯ ಕಂಬುಗ್ರೀವನ | ೧ |
ಕರಿಕರದ ವಾಲ ಪೋಲುವ ಚತುರ್ಭುಜದ ಕಂಕಣ ಮುದ್ರಿಕೆಯ
ಪೇರುರದಲೊಪ್ಪುವ ವೈಜಯಂತೀ ಮಾಲೆ ಶೋಭಿಪನಾ |
ಸಿರಿಯು ಶೃಂಗರಿಸುವ ವಕ್ಷದ ಸರಸಿಜಾಸನಜನಿತನಾಭಿಯ
ವರಕಟಿಯ ಮ್ಯಾಲೆಸೆವ ಪೀತಾಂಬರ ವಿರಾಜಿತನ | ೨ |
ಧರೆಯ ಈರಡಿ ಮಾಡಿ ದನುಜರ ಸದೆದು ದಿವಿಜರ
ಪೊರೆವ ಭಾಪುರೆ ವರರತುನ ಕಂಕಣ ನ್ಯಾವಳ ತೊ-
ಡರಿನಿಂದೆಸೆವ ಚರಣವನರುಹ ಜಯಜಯಾಕ್ಷೋಭ್ಯ-
ತೀರಥ ರಾಮವಿಠಲನ ನೀಲಮೇಘ ಶ್ಯಾಮನ | ೩ |