What is Adhika Masa?
Adhika Masa is the thirteenth month in a Calender year followed by Lunar Calender,i.e., Chandramana reethya. It is not followed by those who are following Solar Calender, i.e., Sourmaana Reethya.
As per Chandramaana reethya, we have 354 days in a calendar year. But as per Souramana reethya, (Solar Calender) we have 365 days. So, there is a difference of 11 days between Sourmana reethya and Chandramana reethya. So, these extra days difference of 11 days will be added, once in 33 months (32 months, 16 days , and 4 ghalige to be precise) , so that there is extra 29 or 30 days in that particular year. This concept of adding one extra month after every 33 months is known as Adhika Masa.
In states like Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, etc, the adhika maasa begins on Shudda padya and ends on Amavasya day (New moon day). In North India, Adhika Masa begins on Bahula Padya, and ends on Hunnime (Full moon day). Whereas in states like Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Tamilnadu, there is no adhika maasa for them, as they are following solar calendar.
Adhika Maasa is applicable for Chandramana followers only.
The lunar calendar is completely synchronizes with the solar calendar in a period of 60 years.
Mathematically speaking a Chandramana Varsha (Lunar calendar = 29.5305 X 12 = 354.366 days) has 354 days, while a Soura Varsha (Solar calendar = 365.2587 days) has 365 days, the difference being 11 days per year.
For one year (12 months) – 11 days
For second year (12 months) – 11 days
For 8 months ( 8 months) – 7 ½ days
For 16 days & 4 galige – ½ days –
Total 33 months – 30 days
“dvaatrimshadbhi: gatai: maasai: dinai: ShOdashabhistatha|
GaTikaanaaM chatuShkENa patatyadhikamaasaka: “ ||
द्वात्रिंशद्भि: गतै: मासै: दिनै: षोदशभिस्तथ।
घटिकानां चतुष्केण पतत्यधिकमासक: ।
ದ್ವಾತ್ರಿಂಶದ್ಭಿ: ಗತೈ: ಮಾಸೈ: ದಿನೈ: ಷೋದಶಭಿಸ್ತಥ|
ಘಟಿಕಾನಾಂ ಚತುಷ್ಕೇಣ ಪತತ್ಯಧಿಕಮಾಸಕ: |
Sankramana during Adhika Masa – During Adhika Masa, there will not be any sankramana. That is why it is said “asankraantamaasOdhimaasa:”.
Note : Normally Adhikamasa will be happening once in 33 months. Sometimes, it may happen in 29 months, 30 months, 31 months, and 35 months also due to the variations in Graha sanchara. That is why it is said in Mahabharatha that the Adhikamasa will be occurring twice in 5 years.
panchamE panchamE varshE dvaumaasaavadhimaasakau |
tEshaam kaalaatirEkENa grahaaNaamatichaarata: |
Purushottama maasa shrestatva – Sri Purushottama is the masa niyamaka for this adhika maasa. That is why it is called as “Purushottama Maasa”.
Other names for Adhika Masa –
“Mala Maasa”, – as Srihari will remove all our sins during this maasa. As this month will be without sankranti, there is no importance of Shubha kaarya like Marriage, Upanayana, Gruhapravesha, etc.
“malimlucha”, – When there is no sun in a particular month it is termed as “Malimucha”. There are dwadashadityaru, viz., AruNa, Surya, bhaanu, tapana, indra, ravi, gabhasti, Aryama, hiraNyarEtasa, divaakara, mitra, viShNu will be born in each twelve months. There will be no sun during the thirteenth month. Therefore the works of the Sun will be done by the suryamandala itself.
ಮಾಸೇಷು ದ್ವಾದಶಾದಿತ್ಯಾ: ತಪಂತೇ ಹಿ ಯಥಾಕ್ರಮಂ |
ನಪುಂಸಕೇಧಿಕೇ ಮಾಸಿ ಮಂಡಲಂ ತಪಸೇ ರವೆ ||
मासेषु द्वादशादित्या: तपंते हि यथाक्रमं ।
नपुंसकेधिके मासि मंडलं तपसे रवॆ ॥
maasEShu dvaadashaadityaa: tapaMtE hi yathaakramaM |
napuMsakEdhikE maasi maMDalaM tapasE rave ||
“purushottama maasa” – as Purushottama is the maasa niyamaka. Once Chaturmuka brahmadevaru kept the Saadhane done through Vedokta acharane in one side of a scale and sadhane done done during purushottama maasa. Then the scale weighed more in purushottama sadhane side itself, which clearly explains the importance of Adhika maasa
Duties during Adhika Maasa –
- Maasa snaana – Throughout the month, we have to get up early during arunodayakala itself and do the snaana in rivers, and thirthas or atleast in wells. (Even when we are doing the snaana in a Pipeline water supplied by watersupply board, we have to do the chintana of Ganga sankalpa and do it).
- Nakta Bhojana – We have to do the fasting till night and do the bhojana only in the night.
- Ayachita Vrata – We must not ask anybody anything. We have be yadruchchaalaaba santrupta.
- Dharana paarana – One day upavaasa (DharaNa), next day (PaaraNa) – with this 15 days upavasa and 15 days bhojana.
- Tambula Daana – During Adhikamasa, if we give tamboola daana to brahmana suvasiniyaru, our dourbhagya will be removed and we will get soubhagya.
- Deepa daana – During this month we have to light “Akanda deepa” in the devara mane. We must ensure that the deepa never goes off throughout the day-night.
- Apoopa daana – During this month, one has to give apoopadaana of 33 apoopa to brahmana daily. However, we can give more than 33 also, but not less than 33. If it is not possible to give apoopa daana on all the days, one can give it on any particular day. It must be accompanied by same number of Tamboola (Villedele), and dakshine. If we are doing on any single day – Shukla dwaadashi, pourNami, Krishna Dwadashi, amavasye, Krishna paksha astami, navami and chaturdashi is preferable.
Apoopa must be made up of Rice, jiggery, ghee. By giving the apoopa daana, we will get the punya equal to pruthvi daana.
- Phala daana – Actually apoopa daana is the Best. But we can give daana of Fruits, like mangoes, bananas, etc. Each fruits must have be alongwith 33 tambola villedele, 33 dakshine, etc.
- Kamyakarma shiddha – During Adhka Maasa, Marriage, Upanayana, Gruhapravesha, choula, sanyasa sweekara, annaprashana, – must not be done as these are kaamyakarma. However Homa – Havana done with the intention of pleasing srihari, bhagavatpoojartham it can be done. If we have already started any kaamyakarma prior to adhika maasa, it can be continued, but new karmas not be started.
- Shraddhas – Samvatsarika shraddha if it is falling during a month of Adhika maasa, it has to be done in Nija maasa. Eg. Shraaddha falling during Vaishaka Maasa must be done in regular vaishaka maasa and not in Adhika Vaishaka Maasa.
- Shraaddhaas – monthly shraadhaas during Adhika Maasa – If one has died in a year and his monthly shraaddha to be done in Adhikamasa apart from regular monthly shraddha.
- Chaturmasya – If during Chaturmasya, Adhika maasa comes, then we have to observe Chaturmasya + Adhikamaasa. If during Shaka vratha adhikamasa comes, Shaka Vratha must be done for two months.
- Mahalaya Maasa – If during Bhadrapada Maasa adhika Maasa, comes, then Mahalaya Paksha to be done in both Adhika and nija Bhadrapada maasa.
33 devatas in apoopadaana
|Sl No||Devate||antaryami roopa|
Adhikamaasa katha –
Once Lakshmidevi asked Srihari as to how to perform the Adhika Maasa pooja and what are the daanaas to be during Adhikamasa.
Then Srihari told her that he himself is the God for the Adhika maasa with the name Purushottama. What ever punya kaarya lika snaana, japa, homaa will bring akshaya phala. He also told that those who does not do any punya karya during Adhika Maasa will be getting daaridrya, putrashoka, etc
Those who could not do for the whole month can do it atleast on Krishna paksha Astami, navami, chaturdashi, Dwadashi, pournami, chaturdashi, etc.
Earlier there lived a brahmana by name Kaushika who was a jitendriya. He had a son by name maitreya who was addicted to drinking and was a kamaandha. One day Maitreya went to forest. He killed a brahmana in Sourashtra and snatched all the money with the Brahmin. Because he killed that brahmana, the whole City itself was burnt. As he got brahma hatya dosha, Maitreya was taken by Yamadootharu and was thrown in Krumeekunda. He was in the Hell for more than 10000 years. After a long period, Kaushika, the father of Maitreya came to know about the same. Kaushika searched all the shruthi – shaastraas and found a remedy for brahmahatya parihara.
He did the Vratha named Adhikamasa Vratha and gave 33 apoopadaana and his son was saved from the Hell.
As such, Adhikamasa vratha, if done with proper anusandhana can remove brahma hatya dosha also