Pitru-paksha – click for pdf file
List of Pitru Devategalu – PDF File
Shraddaya charitam shraadha:
ಮಾತೃದೇವೋಭವ ಪಿತೃದೇವೋಭವ ಆಚಾರ್ಯದೇವೋಭವ
Mahalaya Paksha 2017 specified dates
06.9.2017 – Mahalaya Paksharambha
10.9.2017 – MahabharaNi shraaddha
12.9.2017 – Purvedyu Shraaddha
13.9.2017 Madhyashtami Shraaddha
14.9.2017 – Avidhava navami shraaddha, anvashtakaa shraaddha, vyatIpaata Mahalaya
17.9.2017 – Yati Mahalaya
18.9.2017 – Gaata Chaturdashi
19.9.2017 – Sarvapitru Amaavaasya, darsha,
20.9.2017 – Maatamaha Shraaddha
ಮಹಾಭಾರತ ಪುರಾಣದ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಕರ್ಣ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಹತನಾದಾಗಿ, ಸ್ವರ್ಗ ಸೇರಿದಾಗ ಅವನಿಗೆ ಬಂಗಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಆಭರಣಗಳನ್ನು ಆಹಾರವಾಗಿ ನೀಡಲಾಯಿತು. ಆದರೆ ಕರ್ಣನಿಗೆ ಬೇಕಾಗಿದ್ದು ನಿಜವಾದ ಆಹಾರ. ಇದರಿಂದ ಬೇಸತ್ತ ಕರ್ಣ ಇಂದ್ರನಲ್ಲಿ ಕೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಆಗ ಇಂದ್ರ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ “ನೀನು ನಿನ್ನ ಪೂರ್ವಿಕರಿಗೆ ಅವರ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಅನ್ನವನ್ನು ದಾನವಾಗಿ ನೀಡಿಲ್ಲ. ಜೀವಮಾನ ಪೂರ್ತಿ ಬೇಕಾದಷ್ಟು ಬಂಗಾರಾದಿ ಆಭರಣಗಳನ್ನು ದಾನವಾಗಿ ನೀಡಿದ್ದೇ. ಅದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ನಿನಗೆ ನಿಜವಾದ ಆಹಾರ ದೊರಕುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ”. ತನಗೆ ತನ್ನ ಪೂರ್ವಜರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಏನೂ ಗೊತ್ತಿಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರಿಂದ ಯಾವ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧವನ್ನು ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿಲ್ಲ ಎಂದು ಕರ್ಣ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ. ಇದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಅವನಿಗೆ ವಿಶೇಷವಾಗಿ ಪರಿಹಾರ ರೂಪವಾಗಿ ೧೫ ದಿನಗಳ ಕಾಲ ಭೂಲೋಕಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಗಿ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧ ಮಾಡಿ ಅವರ ನೆನಪಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಆಹಾರವನ್ನು ದಾನ ಮಾಡಲು ಅನುಮತಿ ನೀಡುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಆ ಕಾಲಕ್ಕೆ ಪಕ್ಷಮಾಸವೆನ್ನುತ್ತಾರೆ.
ಮಹಾಲಯ ಅಂದರೆ – “ಮಹಾ” – ದೊಡ್ಡ “ಲಯ” – ನಾಶ – ಸಮುದ್ರ ಮಥನ ಸಂದರ್ಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಬಹಳ ಋಷಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ದೇವತೆಗಳು ದೈತ್ಯರಿಂದ ಸಂಹರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟರು. ಈ ಋಷಿಗಳು ನಮ್ಮ ಪೂರ್ವಜರಾಗಿದ್ದುದರಿಂದ ಅವರ ನೆನಪಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಮಹಾಲಯ ಪಕ್ಷವವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸುತ್ತೇವೆ. ಅದುವೇ ಸರ್ವಪಿತೃ ಅಮಾವಾಸ್ಯೆ.
ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ತಿಲ ತರ್ಪಣವೇಕೆ ?
ಎಳ್ಳುಗಳ ಅಭಿಮಾನಿ ದೇವತೆ ಸೋಮ (ಚಂದ್ರ). ಅವು ಅವನ ವೃದ್ಧಿಗೂ ಕಾರಾಣವಾಗಿವೆ. ಅವನೇ ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ಆಧಾರ. ಪಿತೃಲೋಕ ಚಂದ್ರನ ಮೇಲ್ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಚಂದ್ರನ ಕಲೆಗಳೆ ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ಆಹಾರ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಚಂದ್ರನಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಿಯವಾದ ಎಳ್ಳು ಪಿತೃದೇವತೆಗಳಿಗೂ ಪ್ರಿಯವಾಗಿವೆ. ಭೂಮಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂರ್ಯನ ಚಲನೆಗೆ ಅನುಗುಣವಾಗಿ ರಾತ್ರಿ ಹಗಲಾಗುವಂತೆ ಪಿತೃಲೋಕದಲ್ಲೂ ಸೂರ್ಯನ ಚಲನೆಗೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗಿವೆ. ಭೂಮಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ೨೪ ಘಂಟೆಗೆ ಒಂದು ದಿನವಾದರೆ ಚಂದ್ರನಲ್ಲಿ ೧೫ ದಿನ ಹಗಲು ೧೫ ದಿನ ರಾತ್ರಿಯಾದರೆ ೧ ದಿನವಾಗುವುದು. ಶುಕ್ಲಪಕ್ಷದ ಅಷ್ಟಮಿಯಿಂದ ಕೃಷ್ನಪಕ್ಷದ ಅಷ್ಟಮಿಯವತೆಗೆ ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ರಾತ್ರಿಯಾದರೆ, ಕೃಷ್ಣಪಕ್ಷದ ಅಷ್ಟಮಿಯಿಂದ ಶುಕ್ಲ ಪಕ್ಷದ ಅಷ್ಟಮಿಯವರೆಗೆ ಹಗಲು. ಅಂದರೆ ನಮ್ಮ ಒಂದು ತಿಂಗಳು ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ಒಂದು ದಿನ. ಆಗ ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ಅಮಾವಾಸ್ಯೆ ನಡು ಮಧ್ಯಾಹ್ನವೆನಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಅಮಾವಾಸ್ಯೆಯಂದು ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ತಿಲ ತರ್ಪಣಕ್ಕೆ ಮಹತ್ವ. ದಕ್ಷಿಣಾಯಣದ ಕನ್ಯಾಮಾಸದಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂರ್ಯನು ಭೂಮಿಗೆ ಅತಿ ಸಮೀಪದಲ್ಲಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಪಿತೃಪಕ್ಷದಲ್ಲಿ ತರ್ಪಣ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧಕ್ಕೆ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಮಹತ್ವವಿದೆ.
Q – Why Darbe is called as pavitra?
Answer – Darbe, Kusha, Barhi, Pavitra are the different names used for the darbe. Once, Garuda, brought Amruta from Devendra to save his mother from the daasya of Kadru the mother of Snakes, and told them to come with purify to take the amruta. As told by Garuda, the snakes went for purification through snaana. Before they could turn, Indra snatched the Amruta, which was kept on the Darbe. While taking Amruta, a drop of Amruta fell on the Darbe, which made it pavitra. That is why it is called as Pavitra.
Q – Why one has to do shraadha/paksha?
Answer – Having born on shresta karma bhoomi bharatha, one has to get discharged from mainly four Runaas viz., Pitru Runa, Deva Runa, Rushi Runa and Acharya Runa. Pitru Runa can be discharged in the following ways – by getting a male child, by maataa-pitru seva, and by performing pitru yagna.
Why Paksha will be observed during this period – for pitru devategalu, one month of Human period is equal to one day, and shukla paksha is the day and Krishna paksha is the night for them. What we are giving as Thila Tarpana and Pinda pradhana during the said period will be sufficient for them throughout the year. That is why one is performing Paksha during the period. The rituals performed during 15 days of the Mahalaya are considered important and considered equal to that being performed in holy places like Gaya. Offerings made to the Pitru devategalu during this fortnight reach them directly as ordained by Lord Yama. Offerings reach all departed souls, whether they are directly related to those offering them or not. Thila or sesame seeds tarpana and pinda pradhana or rice ball offerings are made to departed ancestors during the fortnight. The food offerings reach the dead through the rays of the sun.
Q – Who has to do paksha?
Answer – All those who have lost their fathers must do Paksha.
Q – Where Paksha/Shradha to be done?
Answser – It is better to do it in a kshetra. If not possible atleast in your house. Now-a-days, because of non availability of requirements for Shradha in house, (eg – Fuel, water) it can be done in Rayara Mutts also.
Q – What are the Items required for Paksha ?
Aggistike, Charcoal, Dharbe (Kusa grass), plain rice, Rice (nivedita annam), ghee, curds, honey, milk, Black Sesame, water, Tulsi Leaves, Pavitra (Made of darbha), Vishnu padam (Foot print of Sri Maha Vishnu), Plantain Leaves, Fruits, Panchapatre, Uddrane, Villedele, Adike, Dakshine., yajnOpaveeta, gopichandana, donne. During Shraddha time, better avoid conversation with other relations, mobile calls.
Steps for Shraddha/Paksha –
Achamana, Pavitradharana, punarachamana, Yavodaka, tilodaka, Amantrana for darbe brahmanaru, paada prakshalana, Asana, arghya, antaryaami pooja, Avaahana, gandha, mandala, paatraasadana, darbe brahmana bhojana, pinda pradana, pinda pooja, bhojana niyama, pinda visarjana, brahmana visarjana, brahmana suvasini bhoori bhojana sankalpa, brahmana bhojana, taking ashirvaada from brahmanaas, yajamaana bhojana, telling krishnarpana.
Specified dates for Paksha –
Actually Paksha has to be done on all the 15 days. (On Ekadashi without rice). Atleast Tila tarpana must be given on all the days during paksha maasa. If one is not able to do paksha on all the days, they have to select a day, usually the day of his father’s death day. Suppose his father has died on Dwiteeya, then on Dwiteeya day itself shraddha to be done. If it is inconvenient for him to do it on Dwiteeya, then he can do it on any day other day except the following days – Navami (meant for Avidhava – for those have died as muthaide), Ekadashi (Upavasa), Dwadashi (meant for Yathigalu), Chaturdashi (Ghata Chaturdashi – meant for accident victims). They can do it on other days. For those who have died on Pournami day, Paksha to be done paadya or other convenient day.
If during this entire period, it is not possible to do the paksha, then you can do it during Thula maasam i.e. When Surya enters Kanya rashi (upto Ashwayuja bahuLa panchami ) .
NO MAHALAYA SHRADDHA DURING THE MRUTHA VARSHA – Until the completion of one year of the death, No Mahalaya shradda to be performed for the deceased.
Shraddha Phala –
By doing Shraddha/Paksha pitru devategalu will be satisfied. Pitrantargata Srihari will be pleased. We, people of the 21st century will ask “What will we get by doing shraddha/paksha?”
ಪಿತಾ ದದಾತಿ ಸತ್ಪುತ್ರಾನ್ ಗೋಧನಾನಿ ಪಿತಾಮಹ: |
ಧನದಾತಾ ಭವೇತ್ಸೋಪಿ ಯಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ: |
ದದ್ಯಾದ್ವಿಪುಲಮನ್ನಾದ್ಯಂ ವೃದ್ಧಸ್ತು ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ: |
ತೃಪ್ತಾ: ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧೇನ ತೇ ಸರ್ವೇ ದತ್ವಾ ಪುತ್ರಸ್ಯ ವಾಂಛಿತಂ ||
पिता ददाति सत्पुत्रान् गोधनानि पितामह: ।
धनदाता भवेत्सोपि यस्तस्य प्रपितामह: ।
दद्याद्विपुलमन्नाद्यं वृद्धस्तु प्रपितामह: ।
तृप्ता: श्राद्धेन ते सर्वे दत्वा पुत्रस्य वांछितं ।
pitaa dadaati satputraan gOdhanaani pitaamaha: |
dhanadaataa bhavEtsOpi yastasya prapitaamaha: |
dadyaadvipulamannaadyam vRuddhastu prapitaamaha: |
tRuptaa: shraaddhEna tE sarvE datvaa putrasya vaanCitam|
By doing the shraddha/paksha, father will bless you with satputraas (good yogya children). Your Pitamaha, i.e., grand father will bless you with go-dhana (cow-wealth), Prapitamaha (Great grand father – ಮುತ್ತಜ್ಜ) will bless with property and wealth. They also bless us with Food, shelter, wealth, grains, etc.
Question – Whether pitru devates will come to our house on that Shraddha/Paksha Day?
Yes. They will come. Pitruantargata Vasurudra Adityas antargata pradyumna sankarshana Vasudeva Roopi paramathma will come in Vaayu roopa, watch shraddha karma, eat and will be pleased (if done with proper achara vichara). If shraddha not done in a particular house, pitru devates will wait till suryasta, and leave the house with hungry and thirsty, and also curse his family members.
ಪಿತೃಯಜ್ಞ ದಿನೇಪ್ರಾಪ್ತೆ, ಗೃಹದ್ವಾರಂ ಸಮಾಶ್ರಿತಾ:
ವಾಯುಭೂತಾ: ಪ್ರವಾಂಛಂತಿ, ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧಂ ಪಿತೃಗಣಾನೃಣಾಂ |
ಯಾವದಸ್ತಮಯಂ ಭಾನೋ: ಕ್ಷುತ್ಪಿಪಾಸಾ ಸಮಾಕುಲಾ: |
ನಿಶ್ವಸ್ವ ಸುಚಿರಂ ಯಾಂತಿ ಗರ್ಹಯಂತಿ ಸ್ವವಂಶಜ: |
पितृयज्ञ दिनेप्राप्तॆ, गृहद्वारं समाश्रिता:वायुभूता: प्रवांछंति, श्राद्धं पितृगणानृणां ।
यावदस्तमयं भानो: क्षुत्पिपासा समाकुला: । निश्वस्व सुचिरं यांति गर्हयंति स्ववंशज: ।
pitRuyajna dinEpraapte, gRuhadvaaram samaashritaa:vaayubhUtaa:
pravaanchaanti, shraaddham pitRugaNaanRuNaam |
yaavadastamayam bhaanO: kShutpipaasaa samaakulaa: |
nishvasva suchiram yaanti garhayanti svavamshaja: |
ಧನದಾತಾ ಭವೇತ್ಸೋಪಿ ಯಸ್ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ: |
ದದ್ಯಾದ್ವಿಪುಲಮನ್ನಾದ್ಯಂ ವೃದ್ಧಸ್ತು ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ: |
ತೃಪ್ತಾ: ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧೇನ ತೇ ಸರ್ವೇ ದತ್ವಾ ಪುತ್ರಸ್ಯ ವಾಂಛಿತಂ ||
Maha Bharani Shraddha –
Paksha done on Mahabharani shraddha day is of high importance. This is observed during Bhadrapada Krishna paksha, on the day on which Bharani Nakshatra is there. Even if you have are doing paksha on some other day also, this also Paksha must be done.
Vyateepata Shraddha –
Paksha done on Vyateepata shraddha day is also of high importance. This is observed during Bhadrapada Krishna paksha, on the day on which Vyateepata Yoga is observed. Even if you have are doing paksha on some other day also, this also Paksha must be done.
Vidhava means Widow. “Avidhava” means not a Widow -Sumangali. Avidhava Navami in the context of Pitru Paksham is the day on which cermonies/rituals are to be performed for those Women (Mothers) who died as Sumangali. It should be performed by the son/s on the Navami tithi day during Pithru Paksha. Avidha Navami is followed by those who have lost their mothers and their father is alive. They have to do it on Bhadrapada Krishna Navami day. They have to invite Mutthaide-Brahmana Dampatigalu. Give them marada baagina (ಮರದ ಬಾಗಿನ) containing all saumangala items like haridra, kumkuma, coconut, rice, dalls, blouse peace, villedele, adike, dakshine, if possible sarry, blousepiece, etc.. On this day, pinda pradhana to be done. Atleast tila tarpana to be done. Here during Avidhava navami, unlike paksha (wherein all the forefathers will be called), only his mother/mother’s in law and great grand mother will be called and panda pradhana will be done.
Kapila Shashti yoga –
If Bhadrapada Masa Krishna paksha Shasti tithi falls on Sunday or Tuesday ., and if on that day Vyatipata yoga is there and Rohini Nakshatr is there it is called as KAPILA SHASTI YOGA. On this day, we must do the archana of Surya and do the daana of kapila dhenu. Shraddha done on this day will have more punya.
Bhadrapada Bahula Dwadashi is meant for Yathigalu. On this day, hastodaka will be given to all the Yatigalu who have entered Vrundavana. On this day, Paksha for other pitrugalu and forefathers not to be done. This day is exclusively reserved for Yathigalu.
The reason for performing the Shraddha for Sanyaasis and saints is that they have preserved and passed on the knowledge of sanatharma dharma and had done great service to the society. We have to do yathi dwadashi shraddha to get ourselves free from Yati Runa, that is why it is called as “Yati Dwadashi”. These Yatigalu having prepared so many shastra granthaas, vyaakyaanaanaas, Teeka granthaas have helped us a lot in learning ancient granthaas. So, we have Runa to them – Yati Runa. That is why we have do Yati Mahalaya.
This shraaddha to be done by Yatiputraaas only. Who are Yatiputraas? Those who have grantha/shastra runa from the yatigalu are termed as “yati putraas”. Yati Shraadda does not mean that we need to give pinda pradhana to yatigalu. This is anna santarpana/hastodaka to yatigalu in the forkm of bhojana to brahmana suvasini santarpane.
Those who are doing daily paksha shraddha can do it on Yathi Mahalaya Dwadashi also.
Trayodashi Shraaddha –
Shraaddha done on Bhadrapada Bahula Trayodashi will please the forefathers and keep them happy with five hundred years. On this day, if it has Makha Nakshatra and Surya in Hasta Nakshatra, it is called as “Gajachchaaya Yoga or Vaivaswathee Gajachchaaya”. Shraaddha done on Bhadrapada Bahula Trayodashi will fetch him punya equal to Gaya Shraddha. Those who are having male child not to do pinda shraddha on Trayodashi day, he has to do only sankalpa shraddha. If he does, the jysta putra will die. The shraddha done on this day fetches punya equal to Gaya shraddha.
Ghata Chaturdashi –
Bhadrapada Krishna Chaturdashi –
ಪ್ರತಿಪತ್ ಪ್ರಭೃತಿಷ್ವೇಕಾಂ ವರ್ಜಯಿತ್ವಾ ಚತುರ್ದಶೀಂ |
ಶಸ್ತ್ರೇಣ ತು ಹತಾ ಯೇ ವೈ ತೇರ್ಭ್ಯಸ್ತತ್ರ ಪ್ರದೀಯತೇ |
This day is meant for those who have passed away due to accidents or those who met with unnatural death like snake bites, accidents, suicide, war, and other natural calamities, etc. The day is known as Ghata Chaturdashi. There is a strong belief that the souls of these people who had an unnatural death, like death due to weapons, poison, Snake bite, etc., will be wandering around and do not rest in peace. Others not to do paksha on this day. The tithi is meant for Accidental victims only. For those who are doing “Sakrunmahaalaya”. that is shraddha on only a particular day of the paksha maasa, they need not do it on this day. However for those who are doing paksha daily, they can do it on this day also. Even in case of pitru having dead on Chaturdashi day, Paksha not to be performed on this day. However general shraddha to be performed on the death day.
Please note :
1. This Ghata Chaturdashi does not apply to those who have died by deha tyaaga (self death) through entering agni, jumping in water due to ill health, shastra reethya, or a lady doing “sahagamana” . They are not considered as “Ghaata”. As such, Paksha not to be performed for these people.
2. This paksha for “Ghata” to be performed for only those victims only and not for others. If for pitamahadees also paksha performed on this day, the punya will be taken away by rakshaas. If all the three pitru – pitamaha – prapitamaha are dead due to “Ghata” (shastra), then for all the three Ghata chaturdashi paksha to be performed.
Q – During Shradha Srihari will be there in how many roopas in the kartru and bhoktru?
Answer – Janardhana roopa will be there 3555 roopas
Q – How to do the the chintana of Srihari during Shradha?
1. Swaaha – Mayapathi Vasudeva will give trupthi to devategalu
2. Swadhaa – Jayapathi Sankarshana will give trupthi to devategalu
3. Khadya, Peya, Lehya, ChoShya, – Kruthipathi pradyumna will give trupti to devategalu
4. TruNaadi – Shanthipathi anirudda will give trupti to devategalu.
Q -What is Shannavathi Shradda –
Answer – Shraadhaas done on some specific days – There are 96 shraadaas to be done in a year. They are :-
- 12 Amavaasye
- 12 Vaidhruthi
- 14 manvaadi
- 12 vyatipaata
- 4 yugaadi
- 15 Mahalaya
- 12 Sankramana
- 15 Ashtaka
(bhadrapada Bahula saptami, astami, navami, Margashira bahula saptami, astami, navami Pushya Bahula saptami, astami, navami, Magha bahula saptami, astami, navami, Palguna bahula saptami, astami, navami) – TOTAL 96 roopa of paramathma will be there in these 96 shraadhaas.
Q. Who are Dwadasha Pitrugalu?
Dwadasha Pitrugalu means 12 pitrugalu, viz.,
a. Pitruvarga – pitru traya – Pitru, pitaamaha, prapitaamaha
b. Matruvarga – matru traya – Matru, Pitamahi, prapitaamahi
c. Maataamaha varga – maataamaha, maatu:pitaamaha; maatu:prapitaamaha
d. Maataamahi varga – maataamahi, maatu:pitaamahi; maatu:prapitaamahi
Paternal Side (Father’s side pitrugalu)
- Pithram (Father) (vasu roopam)
- Pithamaham (Grand Father -Father’s father) (rudra roopam)
- Prapithamaham (Great Grand Father- Father’s paternal grand father) (Aditya roopam)
- Maatharam (Mother) (vasu roopam)
- Pitamahim – (Grand Mother. i.e., father’s mother) (Rudra Roopam)
- Prapithamahim (Great Grand Mother- Fathers paternal Grand Mother) (aditya roopam)
- Saapatni Janani (Step Mother, if any)(vasu roopam)
Maternal Side (Mother’s side Pitrugalu)
- 8. Maataram (Mother)(vasu roopam)
- 9. Maatamaham (Grand Father-Mother’s father) (vasu roopam)
- 10. Maathu Pitamaham (Great Grand Father-Mother’s paternal grand father)(rudraroopam)
- 11. Maathu Prapithamaham (Great Great Grand Father-Mother’s paternal G.Grand father)(Aditya roopam)
- 12. Maatamahim (Mother’s mother)
- 13. Maathu Pitaamahim (Mothers paternal grand mother)
- 14. Maathu Prapithamahim (Mother’s paternal Great Grand Mother)
Other Pitrugalu –
- Atma Pathnim (Wife/wives) ಹೆಂಡತಿ
- Tanayaadi – Sutham (son/s) ಮಗ
- Bhratharam (brother/s) ಸಹೋದರ
- Tatpatneem (brother’s wife/s) ಸಹೋದರನ ಹೆಂಡತಿ (ಅತ್ತಿಗೆ, ನಾದಿನಿ)
- Pithravyam (Father’s brothers) ತಂದೆಯ ಅಣ್ಣತಮ್ಮಂದಿರು
- Tatpatneem (uncle’s wife/s) ತಂದೆಯ ಅಣ್ಣತಮ್ಮಂದಿರ ಹೆಂಡತಿ/ಯರು
- Mathula (Maternal Uncle/s) ಸೋದರ ಮಾವ
- Tatpatneem (Their wife/s) ಸೋದರ ಮಾವನ ಹೆಂಡತಿ
- Duhitharam (Self daughter) ಮಗಳು
- Tadbhartaaram (Her husband – Jamaatha) ಅಳಿಯ
- Dauhitharam (Daughter’s son) ಮೊಮ್ಮಗ (ಮಗಳ ಮಗ)
- Atma Bhagini (Sister/s) ಸಹೋದರಿ
- Tadbhartaaram (Her husband) ಸಹೋದರಿಯ ಗಂಡ – ಭಾವ
- Tatputram (Her sons – Bhagineeyam) ಸಹೋದರಿಯ ಮಕ್ಕಳು
- Pithruswasa (Father’s sister) ತಂದೆಯ ಸಹೋದರಿ
- Tatpatneem (Her husband) ತಂದೆಯ ಸಹೋದರಿಯ ಗಂಡ
- Maathuswasa (Mother’s sister) ತಾಯಿಯ ಸಹೋದರಿ
- Tatpateem (Her husband) ತಾಯಿಯ ಸಹೋದರಿಯ ಗಂಡ
- Jaayaapita (Father-in-law)
- jaamaata (Mother-in-law)
- Shalaka/Bhavuka (Brother-in-law) ಹೆಂಡತಿಯ ಅಣ್ಣತಮ್ಮಂದಿರು
- Tatpatneem (Their wife/wives)
- Gurum (Vidya Guru)
- Tatpatneem (Guru patnee)
- Achaaryam (Purohit/priest)
- Tatpatneem (His spouce/s)
- Shishyam (Disciple)
- Aptam (Friend)
If name is not known Yagnamma for ladies and Yagnappa for gents to be used.If Gotra is not known, then Kashyapa Gotra to be used. For Gents Gotram and for women Gotraam to be used. For Gents’ name “Sharmanam” and for ladies “Daam” to be added
Rigvedees must tell their name first, followed by gotra, then roopa. Yajurvedees must tell their gotra, followed by name and roopa
On the Shraddha/Paksha Day, we must follow some practices :
a. We must not brush our teeth
b. We must not eat taamboola
c. We must not take oil bath
d. On shraddha day, we must observe brahmacharya
e. Medicines to be used only if it is inevitable.
f. Rathri bhojana nishiddha
g. Previous day night also bhojana nishiddha
h. After completion of pooja, we must take nirmalya only.
i. Theertha can be taken only after completion of shraddha, giving it to brahmana suvasiniyaru.
j. Only one meals per day during entire paksha maasa for those who are not having father.
k. Morning, Sandhyavandana, Pooja to be done, then only Tarpana to be given
l. Tarpana to be given from Nirmalya Tirtha
m. Tila Tarpana to be given with Pavitra dharana or atleast nirmalya tulasi.
Bhadrapada Krishna Paadya to Amavasye period is also called as Mahalaya Paksha Maasa. Maha – great laya, i.e., destruction. It is said that during one of the wars between Devategalu and daityarugalu, during Bhadrapada Bahula Maasa, many devataas and Rishigalu had died. These devategalu and rishis are like our forefathers and it was during Mahalaya that these Devategalu and Rishis had died. This is why this period is called as Mahalaya.
Saptanna in Pinda pradhana during Paksha/Shraddha –
सप्तान्न प्रकरण (हरिकथामृतसार – पितृगणसंधि १४)
आलसव माडदॆलॆ अनिरुद्धादि रूपगळ ।
कालकालदि नॆनॆदु पूजिसु
श्रीलकुमिवल्लभनॆ अन्नादन्न अन्नदनु ॥
ಸಪ್ತಾನ್ನ ಪ್ರಕರಣ (ಹರಿಕಥಾಮೃತಸಾರ – ಪಿತೃಗಣಸಂಧಿ ೧೪)
ಆಲಸವ ಮಾಡದೆಲೆ ಅನಿರುದ್ಧಾದಿ ರೂಪಗಳ |
ಕಾಲಕಾಲದಿ ನೆನೆದು ಪೂಜಿಸು
ಶ್ರೀಲಕುಮಿವಲ್ಲಭನೆ ಅನ್ನಾದನ್ನ ಅನ್ನದನು ||
Saptanna prakaraNa is found in BruhadaraNyakopanishat. Acharya Madhwa has given the explanation in detail in his bhashya on Bruhadaranyakopanishat. As per that Paramathma prepares SEVEN annaas viz., मनस्सु, वाक्, प्राण, अन्न, बलि, होम, गोक्षीर – ಮನಸ್ಸು, ವಾಕ್, ಪ್ರಾಣ, ಅನ್ನ, ಬಲಿ, ಹೋಮ, ಗೋಕ್ಷೀರ.
. Out of them, he keeps मनस्सु, वाक्, प्राण with himself. That is why if we do the smarpana of मनस्सु, वाक्, इंद्रिय, that will be Mahanaivedya to him. Fourth अन्न (anna) – reserved for gods. As such, if one eats अन्न without doing the samarpana to gods, he will be treated as one who steals the devasva brahmasva and would be akshayapataki. Fifth & Sixth बलि, होम, are anna for gods. Seventh गोक्षीर is visheshanna – animals are grown with the milk of their mother only (calf growing from her cow’s milk) – In this way we have to do the upasana of Saptanna.
The seven kinds of ANNA are further described as :
1. Sadharana anna – One should think the food is created for all to eat but not only to him. It is created by God for the benefit of all. When food is taken like this, then the God would be pleased.
2. Vaishwadeva anna – With the Akara of Swara offered to gods, by stating “Brahmane swaha”, – this food is offered to devataas through AGNI.
3. Baliharana anna – For the pitru through pitru devataas stating “sva dhaayai na mama na mama” “स्व धायै न मम न मम”
4. Manas Anna – Keeping the mind in paramathma in his lotus foot and doing the karmas as bhagavat sankalpa. Completely understanding the jeeva is dependent and paramathma is staying in us and doing the job. We have to do the chintana as “naham karta hari: kartha”. “नाहम् कर्त हरि: कर्थ” This is called as “manas anna”.
5. Vak anna – The words spoken. We should speak only to glorify Srihari and other gods. We must understand that Paramathma is in us and and making us to speak. This is Vak annapuja to Srihari.
6. Sarira anna – Karmas done by the sharira. Performance of Yagna, aradhana, controlling our mind, vak for Srihari.
7. Milk – Anna is milk and water – Water is created by God for the animals and human for living. Milk created for our additional food and for devatas for using in homa.
अग्नौकरणेन देवस्था: । स्वर्गस्था: विप्रभोजने ।
यमस्था: पिंडदानेन ।नरके विकिरेण तु । उच्छिष्टेन च पैशाचा: ।
असुरा: भूरिभोजनात् । दक्षिणेन मनुष्याद्या: ।
During Shraddha/Paksha, we have to give seven types of “Anna” to pitru Devategalu. After the death, Pitru Devategalu will hve ashraya in one among the seven loka ashrayaas, viz., a) Devaloka, b) Svargaloka, c) Yamaloka, d) Naraka Loka, e) Paishachika Loka f) Asura Loka g) Maanushya loka
We will not be knowing as to which loka, our pitru devategalu have gone. So, during Pitruyagna, “Saptanna prakarana” has been practiced by our ancesters. We are giving saptanna. Because of this “Yagna” named Srihari will give trupti to our pitrugalu.
Devaloka – अग्नौकरणेन देवस्था: । – If our Pitru devategalu are in Devaloka – through Vaishwadeva and Agnikarya, etc., they will be stisfied by our Agnoukaranaakya anna, – with the svaaha roopa done in Vaishwadeva homa – aahuti roopa anna.
Svargaloka – स्वर्गस्था: विप्रभोजने । – If our Pitru Devategalu are in Swarga loka, Brahmana Bhojanaakya anna will satisfy them. During Shraddha, we are giving bhojana to brahmanaas. With these, they will be satisfied.
Yamaloka – यमस्था: पिंडदानेन । – If our Pitru Devategalu are in Yamaloka, they will be satisfied with pindapradana roopa anna.
Naraka loka – नरके विकिरेण तु । – If our Pitru Devategalu are in Naraka Loka, they will be satisfied with the VikiraaKya anna (i.e., tila tarpana)
Paishachika Janma – उच्छिष्टेन च पैशाचा: । – If they are in Paishachika Janma, with the Uchchista pinda, they will be satisfied
asura Janma – असुरा: भूरिभोजनात् । – If they are in asura janma, with the bhoori bhojana, (i.e., the bhojana for the other relations and friends), they will be satisfied.
maanushya janma – दक्षिणेन मनुष्याद्या: । – If our pitru devategalu are in maanushya janma, the pitru devategalu will be satisfied with the dakshine given to the brahmana and suvasiniyaru.
Srihari will be in Pradyumna – Sankarshana – Vaasudeva – Aniruddha and Janardhana Roopa and will be called as ” anna – annada – annaada ( अन्न अन्नद अन्नाद ಅನ್ನ ಅನ್ನದ ಅನ್ನಾದ )
He will be with the name “anna” in all the food items that we eat.
He is called as “annada” – as he gives food for all animals/every one.
He is called as “annaada” as he is vishwabhuk – that is, he eats the entire jagath during mahapralaya kaala
Dhowhithra prathipadya Mathamaha shradda to be done on Ashwayuja Masa Shukla paksha padya. On this day, shraddha of dead matamaha to be done.1. Who is mathamaha? ಮಾತಾಮಹ ಅಂದರೆ ಯಾರು?
Mathamaha means father of our mother – Grand father ಮಾತಾಮಹ ಅಂದರೆ ತಾಯಿಯ ತಂದೆ – ತಾತ
2. Who is Dhowhithra? ದೌಹಿತ್ರ ಅಂದರೆ ಯಾರು?
Grandson – daughter’s son – ಮೊಮ್ಮಗ – ಮಗಳ ಮಗ 3. When to do the maataamaha shraaddha? When the grand father (mother’s father) is dead. It is to be done on Ashwayuja shukla pratipat day. Maataamaha Shraaddha to be done even if mother’s brother (sodara maava) is living.
ಮಾತಾಮಹ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧವನ್ನು ತಾಯಿಯ ತಂದೆಯು ಮೃತನಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ ದೌಹಿತ್ರನು (ಮಗಳ ಮಗನು) ಮಾಡತಕ್ಕದ್ದು. ಈ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧವನ್ನು ತಾಯಿಯ ಸೋದರರು (ಅಂದರೆ ಸೋದರ ಮಾವಂದಿರು) ಬದುಕಿದ್ದರೂ ದೌಹಿತ್ರನು ಮಾಡತಕ್ಕದ್ದು. ಇದನ್ನು ಆಶ್ವಯುಜ ಮಾಸ ಶುಕ್ಲ ಪ್ರತಿಪತ್ತಿನಂದು ಮಾಡತಕ್ಕದ್ದು.jaataamaatrOpi douhitrO jIvtyapi cha maatulE | kuryaanmaataamaha shraaddhaM pratipadyaashvinE tithE ||
जातामात्रोपि दौहित्रो जीव्त्यपि च मातुले ।
कुर्यान्मातामह श्राद्धं प्रतिपद्याश्विने तिथे ॥
ಜಾತಾಮಾತ್ರೋಪಿ ದೌಹಿತ್ರೋ ಜೀವ್ತ್ಯಪಿ ಚ ಮಾತುಲೇ |
ಕುರ್ಯಾನ್ಮಾತಾಮಹ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧಂ ಪ್ರತಿಪದ್ಯಾಶ್ವಿನೇ ತಿಥೇ ||
4. Who has to do maatamaha shraddha?
Only the dowhithra can do mathamaha Shraddha, provided he has jeevanpitru i.e., – only if he has living father. ದೌಹಿತ್ರನು ಮಾಡತಕ್ಕದ್ದು ಮತ್ತು ಆ ದೌಹಿತ್ರನು ಜೀವನ್ ಪಿತೃವಾಗಿರಬೇಕು. ಅಂದರೆ ಅವನಿಗೆ ತಂದೆ ಇರಬೇಕು, ತಾಯಿಯ ತಂದೆ ಇರಬಾರದು
5. When one has Jeevanpitru, whether he can do mathamaha shraddha?Yes. This shraaddha to be done by only those who have jeevan pitru. If he has no father, he is not eligible to do mathamaha shraddha. ಆ ದೌಹಿತ್ರನಿಗೆ ತಂದೆ ಇಲ್ಲದಿದ್ದರೆ ಅವನಿಗೆ ಮಾಡುವ ಹಕ್ಕು ಇರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ
6. Whether “Pinda” to be given on this day?
No – As he has jeevan pitru, he is not eligible to give pinda. As such, it has to be done without pinda.
Jeevan pitru does not have eligibility for Pinda, Mundana, pretakarma. (However, if he has no mother, and father is living, then he can give pinda only to his mother on her shraddha day, and not to others).
ಜೀವನ್ ಪಿತೃವಿದ್ದಾಗೆ ಪಿಂಡವನ್ನು ಹಾಕಲು ಬರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಪಿಂಡರಹಿತವಾಗಿಯೇ ಮಾತಾಮಹ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧವನ್ನು ಮಾಡತಕ್ಕದ್ದು. ಜೀವನ್ ಪಿತೃವಿಗೆ ಪಿಂಡ, ಮುಂಡನ, ಪ್ರೇತಕರ್ಮ ಇವುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಅಧಿಕಾರವಿರುವುದಿಲ್ಲ
Q -ತರ್ಪಣ ಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೆ ತಲುಪುತ್ತದೆಯೇ ?
Answer – ಇಂದಿನ ಪಾಶ್ಚಾತ್ಯ ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತಿಯಿಂದ ಪ್ರಭಾವಿತರಾದ ಹಲವಾರು ತಮ್ಮ ತಂದೆ ತಾಯಿಗಳ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧವನ್ನು ಮಾಡುವುದೇ ಇಲ್ಲ. ಮತ್ತು ಇದರಿಂದ ಏನೂ ಪ್ರಯೋಜನವಿಲ್ಲ. ಅವರಿಗೆ ತಲುಪುತ್ತದೆಯಾ ಎಂದು ಅನುಮಾನಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಅಮೇರಿಕಾದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಮಗ ತನ್ನ ತಂದೆಗೆ ಹಣವನ್ನು ಕಳಿಸುತ್ತಾನೆ ಡಾಲರ್ ಮುಖಾಂತರ. ಆ ಹಣ ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ತಂದೆಗೆ ರೂಪಾಯಿಯಾಗಿ ತಲುಪುತ್ತದೆ. ಡಾಲರ್ ಆಗಿ ತಲುಪುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಅದೇ ರೀತಿ ನಾವು ಪಿತೃಗಳನ್ನು ಉದ್ದಿಶ್ಯ ಮಾಡಿದ ತರ್ಪಣ ಕೂಡ ಪಿತೃದೇವತೆಗಳ ಮುಖಾಂತರ ಆ ಜೀವಿಗೆ ಯೋಗ್ಯ ಆಹಾರಾದಿ ಮುಖೇನ ಪರಿಣಾಮ ಹೊಂದಿ ಅವರಿಗೆ ತಲುಪುತ್ತದೆ.