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Tatva Sankyaana

। तत्वसंख्यानं ।  | ತತ್ವಸಂಖ್ಯಾನಂ |
स्वतंत्रं अस्वतंत्रं च द्विविधं तत्वमिष्यते ।
स्वतंत्रो भगवान् विष्णु: भावाभावौ द्विधेतरत् ।1|

ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂ ಅಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂ ಚ ದ್ವಿವಿಧಂ ತತ್ವಮಿಷ್ಯತೇ |
ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರೋ ಭಗವಾನ್ ವಿಷ್ಣು: ಭಾವಾಭಾವೌ ದ್ವಿಧೇತರತ್ |

ಆಚಾರ್ಯ ಮಧ್ವರು ತಮ್ಮ ಗ್ರಂಥದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಂಗಳಾಚರಣ ಶ್ಲೋಕ ಮಾಡದೆಯೇ ಆರಂಭ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆಂಬ ಪರಮತೀಯರ ಆಕ್ಷೇಪಕ್ಕೆ ಎಲ್ಲ ಆಕ್ಷೇಪವನ್ನೂ ಸಾರಾಸಗಟಾಗಿ ನಿರಾಕರಿಸಿ – ಟೀಕಾರಾಯರು ಆಚಾರ್ಯರ ನಿಜವಾದ ಭಾವವನ್ನು ವಿವರಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.  ಆಚಾರ್ಯರು ಮಾನಸಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮಂಗಲವನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿರಬಹುದು, ಮತ್ತು ಆಚಾರ್ಯರು ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಿರುವ ಪದ “ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂ ಅಸ್ವತಂತ್ರಂಚ” ಶಬ್ದದಿಂದ ಪರಮಾತ್ಮನ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯಾದಿಗುಣ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟನೆಂದೂ ಹೇಳುವುದರ ಮೂಲಕ ಮಂಗಲಾಚರಣೆಯನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿದ್ದಾರೆ.   Some have criticised Acharya Madhwa that he has not done the MangalacharaNe for Tatva sankyana Grantha.  Teekarayaru in his Teeka has answered the critics that the very word “SvatantraM” itself will hold good for Mangalacharana as Svatantra shabda indicates Srihari’s  svaatantraadi vaishishtyaas.

“ತತ್ವಸಂಖ್ಯಾನ” – ಸಂಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತವಾಗಿ ಪ್ರಮೇಯದ ಸಂಖ್ಯಾ ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಬಹುದು –
“ತತ್ವ” – “ತತ್ವ” ಎಂದರೆ ಆರೋಪಿತವಲ್ಲದ್ದು  – तत्वं – अनारीपितं –  ಅಂದರೆ “ಪ್ರಮೇಯ” – ಯಥಾರ್ಥ ಜ್ಞಾನಕ್ಕೆ ವಿಷಯವಾದ ಜ್ಞಾನವೇ ಪ್ರಮೇಯ –
ಬೇರೆ ಬೇರೆ ಭಾಷ್ಯಕಾರರು “ತತ್ವ” ಅಂದರೆ ಪ್ರಮೇಯವನ್ನು ಒಂದು, ಎರಡು, ಮೂರು, ಇತ್ಯಾದಿಯಾದಿ ಅವರವರ ಅನುಸಾರ ತಿಳಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.  ಆದರೆ ಆಚಾರ್ಯ ಮಧ್ವರು ತಮ್ಮ ತತ್ವ ಸಂಖ್ಯಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ಪಷ್ಠವಾಗಿ ತತ್ವಗಳು ಎರಡೇ ಎಂದು ಆಧಾರಸಹಿತವಾಗಿ ಘೋಷಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

Different Bhashyakars have given different definition and classification of “Tatva”.  Acharya condemning all the Bhashyakaars, gave a fine definition of the “Tatva” in his great grantha – Tatva Sankyana, where he classified the tatvas as ONLY TWO. i.e.,  “Svatantra” and “Aswatantra”

“Svatantra” स्वतंत्रं prameya means Independent and “Aswatantra or paratantraअस्वतंत्रं prameya means dependent.

स्वतंत्रो भगवान् विष्णु: Only Srihari is Svatantra – that means all others are are asvatantraas – all others are dependent.

From the word Bhagavaan – “Bhag” indicates – all 6 in one – i.e., Prabhutva, veerya, yashassu, sampattu, jnaana and vairagya.  As he has all the six characters named above, he is called as Bhagavan.

From the word “Vishnu” – it indicates Srihari is sarva vyaapi – his vyaptatva is throughout – i.e., there is nothing where there is no existence for him

Srihari is THE only Svatantra tatva and all others are classified as “Aswatantra” tatva.  By using the word “ಇಷ್ಯತೇ””इष्यते”, Acharya Madhwa says that the same is honoured by Vedas/Upanishads.  He further classifies that Bhagavan Vishnu is the only Svatantra.  He further classified the Aswatantra Tatva as “Bhaava” and “Abhaava”.

What is Bhaava and Abhaava  भावाभावौ? –

“Bhaava” means that which is in existence and is known from the first knowledge itself and “Abhaava” means that which is not in existence.

प्राक् प्रध्वंससदात्वेन त्रिविधोsभाव इष्यते ।
चेतनाचेतनत्वेन भावोsपि द्विविधो मत: ।2|

ಪ್ರಾಕ್ ಪ್ರಧ್ವಂಸಸದಾತ್ವೇನ ತ್ರಿವಿಧೋsಭಾವ ಇಷ್ಯತೇ |
ಚೇತನಾಚೇತನತ್ವೇನ ಭಾವೋsಪಿ ದ್ವಿವಿಧೋ ಮತ: |

“Abhaava” is further classified into three groups, viz., “Pragaabhaava”, “pradhvamsaabhaava” and “sadaabhaava“. Sri Vedavyasyaru in his grantha “Tatva Viveka” which Acharya Madhwa has provided as documentary proof in his another grantha “Tatva Viveka” has also defined the said “Abhaava” as three viz., Poorvaabhaava, Aparaabhaava and sadaabhaava.

1. Pragaabhaava or Poorvaabhaava – Previous negation – i.e., Abhaava before the appearance of a product – eg., before the birth of a child, that child upto its birth is called as Pragaabhaava.

2. Pradhvamsaabhava or Aparaabhaava – Later negation – i.e., Abhaava after the disappearance of a product – eg., after a person dies, that person after his death is called as pradhvamsaabhaava

3. Sadaabhaava – Total negation – The one which Never exist – absence present at all three times i.e., past, present and future. That is why it is called Sadaabhaava. – eg –  the horn of a rabbit (“ಮೊಲದ ಕೋಡು”).  No rabbit will ever have horn.  As such, it is never exists.  i.e., sadaabhaava.

“Bhaava” is further classified into two : i.e., “chetana” and “achetana” –  चेतन , अचेतन – i.e., –  चेतयति इति चेतन: अचेतयति इति अचेतन: –   Chetana is the one which is subject to consciousness and the Achetana the one which is not subject to consciousness.

दु:खस्पृष्टं तदस्प्रष्ठं इति द्वेदैव चेतनं ।
नित्यादु:खा रमा न्ये तु स्पृष्टदु:खा समस्तश: । ३ ।

ದು:ಖಸ್ಪೃಷ್ಟಂ ತದಸ್ಪ್ರಷ್ಠಂ ಇತಿ ದ್ವೇದೈವ ಚೇತನಂ |
ನಿತ್ಯಾದು:ಖಾ ರಮಾ ನ್ಯೇ ತು ಸ್ಪೃಷ್ಟದು:ಖಾ ಸಮಸ್ತಶ: | ೩ |

The paratantra or aswatantra  Chetanaas are of two types – viz., Du:KaspRuShTaas and Du:KaaspRuShTaas .

Du:Ka aspRuShTaas (दु:खस्पृष्टं) – refers to the one who never have DuKha  – i.e., none other than saakshaat lakshmi.

Du:kaspRuShTaas – refers to all those chetanaas who does have dukha sambhandha one time or the other.

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