Makara Sankramana (sankranti)

What is sankranthi?

Sankranthi meaning ‘sacred change’ – occurs every month as the Sun moves from one house of the Zodiac to another. But special sacredness attaches to the movement of the Sun to Capricorn (Makara-Sankranthi).  The trees,the plants, herbs and  the nature are subjected to rough rainy season, the autumn   and the  freezing cool atmosphere  that normally exists in dakshiNaayana.    There are 12 sankramanaas in a year.
 
Makara Sankranthi has different names in different places :  It is Makara Sankranthi in Karnataka, Andhra, Maharashtra, etc.  It is called as Pongal in Tamilnadu, Makara Vilakku in Kerala, Maaghi in Haryana, Punjab, etc.
 
What is Uttarayana?

This time Uttarayana 15.01.2015 – Parvakaala starts from suryodaya itself

One year of the  human year is one day for Gods.  For Gods,  it is night during Dakshinayana and it is Day during Uttarayana.
 
Unlike other festivals or aradhanas, Uttarayana/Dakshinayana is not followed on any particular tithi.  It starts on Makara Sankramana Day, usually January 14 or 15th and Dakshinayana starts usually on July 15th or 16th.
 
Uttarayana or Dakshinayana comprising of six months each is the time taken by the Sun to travel from one house to the other during these periods. Starting from “ಮಕರ ರಾಶಿ” (Capricorn) up to “ಮಿಥುನ” (Gemini), the travel of Sun is called as Uttarayana and starting from “ಕರ್ಕಾಟಕ” (Cancer) up to”ಧನು”, (Sagittarius) it is known as Dakshinayana. We all know that Dakshina means South direction and “ಆಯನ” means  movement.   The movement of Sun in the Southern direction is called as Dakshinayana. The time when the Sun leaves “ಮಿಥುನ ರಾಶಿ” (Gemini) and enters “ಕರ್ಕಾಟಕ ರಾಶಿ” (Cancer) is called as Karkataka Sankramana (”ಕರ್ಕಾಟಕ ಸಂಕ್ರಮಣ”), when the period of Uttarayana ends , Dakshinayana begins.  UtharaayaNa  welcomes the spring season. The temperate weather, the balanced season, the harvest, the good health that man enjoys, the granary that is being filled with so many yields after hard work  etc  are all the characteristics of  the  UttaraayaNa.  That is why it is named  as  “PuNyakaala”.  “Ayana” means Movement. Path. The sun starts  changing his path leaning towards Uttara.  Gods will be having day and the daithyaas will be having night during the uttarayana.
 
Importance of ellu or black sesame during sankramana –
Black is given special importance during Makara Sankranti.  Black color Sesame – Til or Ellu is distributed among friends and relatives.  Delicacies made of Til are also eaten on the day.   The main reason why black color and Til is used because it is widely believed that sesame contains prosperities that keeps the body healthy and warm during Sankranti period.   Another reason is that Makara Sankramana swaroopa or the personified deity associated with Makara rashi is black in color.
 
Tila Karmas during Uttarayana –  During Uttarayana punyakaala, we have to do six karmaas from tila.  viz., snaana, tila mishrita panchagavya praashana, pitru tarpana, tila homa, devata tarpana from tila, tila daana

By the bakshana of Tila during makara maasa

Some notable points on Makara Sankramana

1. ” Sankramana” means, san + kramana,  to commence movement. Hence, the name Makar Sankranti is given to one of the largest, most auspicious, but varied festivals in the Indian subcontinent. Due to the geography and size of India, this festival is celebrated for innumerable reasons depending on the climate, agricultural environment, cultural background and location.
2. Uttarayana is referred as Devayana, as it is the day for devataas and as such most of the auspicious things are done in this period only.
3. It is on this day that Bhagiratha gave tarpana to his ancestors in Ganga.
4.  Bhishma, was in the sharapanjana for 56 days, and he was waiting for this parvakala, i.e., Uttarayana punyakala for breathing his last.  It is said that those who die during Uttarayana punyakala, will not have punarjanma.  (provided he has done all his dharma kaarya)
5. Preparation of Pongal –  On this day, preparation of  sweet rice  is the most important recipe done. This is a food prepared with rice, dal, jaggery, grapes, dry fruits, sugar and milk. All these ingredients are cooked in a  pot in the open and allowed to boil over, signifying plenty and prosperity for the year ahead. This is offered to the Suryanamaka paramathma as naivedya.
6.  Harvest festival –  Pongal is termed as harvest festival.  On this day, the farmer expresses his gratitudes to land, cattle and the sun
Makara Sankramana swaroopa  –   It comprise of 3 heads, 2 faces, 5 mouths, 3 eyes,  hanging ear, red teeth, long nose, 8 arms, 2 legs, black colour, mixture of male and female.
 
Distribution of ellu during makara sankramana –  ellu; jaggery; sugar doll (sakkare acchu); sweet pumpkin; sugar cane (kabbu), dakshine, taambula to be distributed during makara sankramana.    Sakkare acchu will be of different shapes like various weapons, various vehicles, various animals like elephant, tiger, lion, ass, horse, dog, etc.      Making of different types of sakkare acchu is for getting peace in the families of friends and relatives.
 
Ashirvada to children –  During evening, Zizyphus jujube (bore hannu), and small pieces of sugar cane, other small fruits all should be mixed and to be poured with our blessings on the children.  This will ensure ayassu vruddi for the children.
 
Uttarayana Punyakala – DOs.
1. After Uttarayana Punyakala, take bath using ellenne or atleast smearing ellu on the body.   If possible, do snaana in a River during Uttarayana Punyakaala.
2.  Light up ellu deepa  (Gingelli oil) in front of God.
3.  Give Tilatarpana to sarvapitrugalu (adhikarigalu)
4.  Ellu homa: i.e mix ellu along with rice and perform vaishvadeva.
5.  Ellu Daana: Mixture of ellu and jaggary and cocunut has to be given to Brahmin.
 6.  Ellu Sweekara: Eating the above mixture. Ellupudi chitraanna should  be cooked for the Naivedya.  Atleast 6 types of items should be made of Ellu on this day for naivedya.
7.  daana of pumpkin (sihi gumbala) is recommended for the day.
ಉತ್ತರಾಯಣ ಪುಣ್ಯಕಾಲ ತರ್ಪಣ ಸಂಕಲ್ಪ :-

೧.  ಆಚಮನ

೨.  ಪವಿತ್ರ ಧಾರಣ (ಪವಿತ್ರ ಮಾಡಲು ಬರದಿದ್ದರೆ ಪವಿತ್ರದ ಉಂಗುರವಿದ್ದರೂ ಪರವಾಗಿಲ್ಲ)

೩.  ಪುನರಾಚಮನ

೪.  ಪ್ರಾಣಾಯಾಮ

ನಂತರ ಸಂಕಲ್ಪ —

ಶ್ರೀ ಗೋವಿಂದ ಗೋವಿಂದ ವಿಷ್ಣೋರಾಜ್ಞಯಾ ಪ್ರವರ್ತಮಾನಸ್ಯ, ಆದ್ಯ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣ:, ದ್ವಿತೀಯ ಪರಾರ್ಧೇ, ಶ್ರೀ ಶ್ವೇತವರಾಹಕಲ್ಪೇ, ವೈವಸ್ವತ ಮನ್ವಂತರೇ, ಕಲಿಯುಗೇ, ಪ್ರಥಮಪಾದೇ, ಜಂಭೋದ್ವೀಪೇ, ದಂಡಕಾರಣ್ಯೇ, ಗೋದಾವರ್ಯಾ: ದಕ್ಷಿಣೇತೀರೇ ಶಾಲೀವಾಹನ ಶಕೇ, ಬೌದ್ಧಾವತಾರೇ, ರಾಮಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ (ಪರಶುರಾಮಕ್ಷೇತ್ರೇ), ಶ್ರೀ ಪರಮವೈಷ್ಣವ ಸನ್ನಿಧೌ, ಅಸ್ಮಿನ್ ವರ್ತಮಾನೇ ಚಾಂದ್ರಮಾನೇನ ವಿರೋಧೀನಾಮ ಸಂವತ್ಸರೇ, ಉತ್ತರಾಯಣೇ, _____ಋತೌ, _____ಮಾಸೇ, ____ನಕ್ಷತ್ರೇ, ____ಯೋಗೇ ______ ಕರಣೇ, _____ವಾಸರಯುಕ್ತಾಯಂ, ಪಿತ್ರಾದಿ ಸಮಸ್ತ ಪಿತ್ರೂಣಾಂ ಅಂತರ್ಗತ, ಮನುನಾಮಕ, ಶ್ರೀ ಭಾರತೀರಮಣ ಮುಖ್ಯಪ್ರಾಣಾಂತರ್ಗತ ಶ್ರೀಮನ್ಮಧ್ವವಲ್ಲಭ ಜನಾರ್ಧನ ವಾಸುದೇವ ಪ್ರೇರಣಯಾ, ಶ್ರೀಮನ್ಮಧ್ವವಲ್ಲಭ ಜನಾರ್ಧನ ವಾಸುದೇವ ಪ್ರೀತ್ಯರ್ಥಂ, ವಿಷ್ಣು ನಕ್ಷತ್ರ, ವಿಷ್ಣುಯೋಗ, ವಿಷ್ಣು ಕರಣ, ಏವಂ ಗುಣ ವಿಶೇಷಣ ವಿಶಿಷ್ಟಾಯಾಂ ಪುಣ್ಯತಿಥೌ., (ಪ್ರಾಚೀನಾವೀತಿ), (ಜನಿವಾರವನ್ನು ಎಡಕ್ಕೆ ಹಾಕಿಕೊಂಡು) ಸದ್ಯ: ತಿಲತರ್ಪಣಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯೇ –

೧. ಪಿತ್ರು, ಪಿತಾಮಹ, ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ

೨. ಮಾತ್ರು, ಪಿತಾಮಹಿ, ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹಿ

೩.ಮಾತಾಮಹ, ಮಾತು: ಪಿತಾಮಹ, ಮಾತು: ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹ

೪. ಮಾತಾಮಹಿ, ಮಾತು: ಪಿತಾಮಹಿ, ಮಾತು: ಪ್ರಪಿತಾಮಹಿ

ಈ ಮೇಲ್ಕಂಡ 12 ಜನಕ್ಕೂ ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಸರ್ವಪಿತೃಗಳಿಗೂ ತರ್ಪಣ ಕೊಡಬೇಕು.  (ಅಕಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಇವರುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾರಾದರೂ ಬದುಕಿದ್ದರೆ ಅವರನ್ನು ಬಿಟ್ಟು)

ಅವತ್ತು ಏಕಭುಕ್ತನಾಗಿರಬೇಕು.

ಬೆಳಿಗ್ಯೆ ಎಂದಿನಂತೆ ಮುಂಜಾನೆಯೇ ಎದ್ದು, ಸ್ನಾನ, ಆಹ್ನೀಕಾದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿ, ನಿರ್ಮಾಲ್ಯ ವಿಸರ್ಜಿಸಿ, ಉಪವಾಸವಿದ್ದು,

ಉತ್ತರಾಯಣ ಪುಣ್ಯಕಾಲ ಸಮಯದವರೆಗೂ ಉಪವಾಸವಿದ್ದು, ಪರ್ವಕಾಲ ಬಂದ ಮೇಲೆ ಸ್ನಾನಾದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿ ನಂತರ ಸೂರ್ಯಾಸ್ತದೊಳಗೆ ತರ್ಪಣಕೊಟ್ಟರೆ ಶ್ರೇಷ್ಠ.

Devarapooja on Makara Sankramana –

It is preferable to do Pooja followed by Naivedya on Makara Sankaramana Day during  Parvakaala.  If done, they will get more punya.  Those who are doing pooja during Parvakala, they have to do nirmalya in the morning as usual, sandhyavandana, parayana, etc.  During Parvakala, he has to take bath once again and do the pooja.   Those who does not have the time, or incapable to wait upto Parvakala, may do it in the morning itself.

Please note Hastodaka not to be given on this day as yathigalu will be fasting.

Morning he has to get up as usual (Usha:kaala), even though the Uttarayana Punyakala is late.  Sometimes, the punyakala comes during afternoon or evening.  Still they have to get up early as usual and do our regular Snaana, Sandhyavandhane, Nirmalya Visarjane, etc,  as usual. (Some people may not get up as there is lot of time for UttarayaNa Punyakala),

When to give the Tarpana ?-

Tarpana to be given in the parvakala to sarvapitrugalu.   Sometimes, Amavasye Darsha also falls on the same day of Sankramana.  As such,  Amavasye Tarpana/ and tarpana due to Amavasye before Tithi  also to be given after Sankramana tarpana during the parvakala.

tila tarpaNa sankalpa –

1.     Achamana
2.    Pavitra dhaaraNa (If one does not know how to prepare pavitra, even pavitra ring will do)
3.    punaraachamana
4.    praaNaayaama 
 
sankalpa —
shrI gOvinda gOvinda viShNOraajnayaa pravartamaanasya, Adya brahmaNa:, dvitIya paraardhE, shrI shvEtavaraahakalpE, vaivasvata manvantarE, kaliyugE, prathamapaadE, jambhOdvIpE, danDakaaraNyE, gOdaavaryaa: dakShiNEtIrE shaalIvaahana shakE, bouddhaavataarE, raamakShEtrE (/parashuraamakShEtrE), shrI parama vaiShNava sannidhou, asmin vartamaanE chaandramaanEna virOdhInaama samvatsarE, uttarayaNe, _____Rutou, ______ maasE, _______pakShE, _______tithou, ________nakShatrE,  _____ yOgE, _____karaNE, _______vaasara yuktaayam, pitraadi samasta pitrUNaam antargata, manunaamaka, shrI bhaaratI ramaNa muKyapraaNaantargata, shrIman madhvavallabha janaardhana vaasudEva prEraNayaa, shrImanmadhvavallabha janaardhana vaasudEva prItyartham, viShNu nakShatra, viShNuyOga, viShNu karaNa, EvanguNa vishEShaNa viSiShTaayaam puNyatithou., (praachInaavIti), (keep janivaara to your left) sadya: tilatarpaNam kariShyE –
1. pitru, pitaamaha, prapitaamaha
2. maatru, pitaamahi, prapitaamahahi
3. maataamaha, maatu: pitaamaha, maatu: prapitaamaha
4. maataamahi, maatu: pitaamahi, maatu: prapitaamahi
 
Tarpana to be given for the above mentioned 12 people and sarvapitrugalu  (However, if any one of them is still there, note not to include him in the tarpana list)
 
Those who have given the tarpana they have to take Theerthaprasada only once and in the night they can take phalahara.
 
He should be empty stomach till UttarayaNa Punyakala.   Then he has to give Tarpana as per the above method.  Tarpana to be given after Uttarayana punyakala and before Suryasta.
 
For those who are Jeevanpitrus  (those who are have their father) – they need not give tarpana, they can do their daily routine works.
Collection from various sources – by Narahari Sumadhwa

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